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Question : Could you please explain the application method of PSE
Answer : Recommended dose of PSE to be mixed with the recommended dose of water and sprayed. The dose of the product & water can vary from country to country. However, in India, the recommended dose of PSE 10 WP is 150 to 200g per hectare( ,000 sq. m.),in 200 litres of water, when sprayed with High Volume Sprayer. Alternately, PSE 10 WP can de mixed with 25 to 35 Kg of sand and manually broadcasted in the field. Pl. note, the first method gives better control while the second is less labourious.

Question : What is Devrinol?
Answer : Devrinol is a selective herbicide that kills certain weed seeds upon germination.

Question : In what crops may Devrinol be used?
Answer : Devrinol is registered for use in Newly planted or established: Strawberries Raspberries Certain Canefruit Nursery stock Field grown (ornamentals and forestry) Container grown (ornamentals and Ground covers) Established Apples Pears Peaches Grapes Devrinol can also be applied on tomatoes and tobacco. Consult label in respective countries for full details.

Question : What is meant by newly planted stock?
Answer : Where recommended Devrinol may be applied after the initial watering in of newly planted stock. Irrigation or rainfall should occur following the application to incorporate Devrinol. For the purpose of the Devrinol label “established” means established for one season or more.

Question : What formulation is devrinol?
Answer : Devrinol is available in either a 50% Dry Flowable or Water Dispersible Granules (to be mixed with water and sprayed on the ground). It is also available in other formulations like 450 g/litre Flowable or Suspension Concentrate, 239g/litre Emulsifiable Concentrate and 2%, 5% and 10% Granules, coated/absorbed in inert carrier.

Question : What are the weed species effectively control by PSE?
Answer : It controls all types of weeds, viz. GRASSES, SEDGES and BROAD LEAF WEEDS{BLW} of paddy. Grasses group like Echinochloa, Cynodon,panicum, etc. Sedges group like Cyperus, Fimbristylis, etc BLW group like Monochoria, Ludwigia, Marsilia, Alternanthera, etc.

Question : What would be the application cost per/ha?
Answer : Application cost will vary from country to country. It will depend on the price of the product available in that country, the labour cost, the recommended dose, etc. In India it would be about Rs180.00 per acre.

Question : How many spray applications is required per crop?
Answer : One application in the nursey-bed, at 1-3 days after sowing. (Generally, nursey is 1/10th of main field). One application at 3 to 5 days after transplanting in the main field. In direct seeded crop, only one application done at 1 to 5 days of sowing.

Question : What are the main attributes of PSE when compare to commonly available herbicides?
Answer : Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl is a sulfonyl urea group of herbicide with board spectrum activity, controlling sedges, grasses, both annual and perennial broadleaf weeds. It was first commercialised in 1990 b.It is a systemic, pre-emergence and early post-emergence rice herbicide and is highly effective rice herbicides, at a very low dose of 10-20 g a.i./ha. c. It is stable in soil and under normal light and pH. d. Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl is absorbed by roots and/or leaves and translocated to the meristem. It is a branched chain amino acid synthesis inhibitor and acts by inhibiting biosynthesis of essential amino acids like ketobutyrate, valine and isolencine hence stopping cell division of roots and plant growth. It is totally selective to rice plant. e. It is very safe to the rice crop. f. PSE has got very low persistence in soil and ground water, with a half-life value of 7-10 days. It is safe to eco-system. g. No weed tolerance reported against Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl . h. Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl application increases the general vigour of rice plant, hence more number of tillers and better grain filling resulting in higer yield. i. Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl has acute oral (rat) LD50 value more than 5000 mg/kg and acute dermal (rat) LD50 value more than 2000 mg/kg indicating that Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl is very safe to livestock and human beings. j. Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl application totally reduces the cost of labour, for hand weeding. A double benefit of higher yield with no cost of hand weeding can be availed of, with Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl application. k.Other rice herbicides controls one or two groups of weeds, whereas PSE controls all the three groups of weeds. l. PSE can be used in both in nursery and main field, whereas mostly others can be used in the main field only. This allows the weed to come from nursery to main field & establish. m. Weeds compete with the main crop for space, nutrient, soil, moisture and sunlight. As PSE kills all the weeds, hence all benefits go to the rice crop. n.Weeds serve as an alternate host to several insects, nematodes and pathogens. These harboured pests are the main & initial source of pest infestation, in the main crop. PSE treated crop usually has less attack of the pests.


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